When the seller directly contacts an individual, in contrast to marketing through mass media such as television or radio.
Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F74-75; C36; E176
F: Foundations of Information Privacy and Data Protection
US: U.S. Private-sector Privacy
C: Canadian Privacy
E: European Privacy
G: U.S. Government Privacy
IT: Privacy in Information Technology
M: Privacy Program Management
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