Textbook Key

F: Foundations of Information Privacy and Data Protection

US: U.S. Private-sector Privacy

C: Canadian Privacy

E: European Privacy

G: U.S. Government Privacy

IT: Privacy in Information Technology

M: Privacy Program Management

Find the terms that relate to the program or designation you are studying for by using the tabs below to narrow your search.




Accountability

A fair information practices principle, it is the idea that when personal information is to be transferred to another person or organization, the personal information controller should obtain the consent of the individual or exercise due diligence and take reasonable steps to ensure that the recipient person or organization will protect the information consistently with other fair use principles.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F18, 21-22; US34-35; C39, 101, 122; E8; G13; M35

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Active Data Collection

When an end user deliberately provides information, typically through the use of web forms, text boxes, check boxes or radio buttons.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F128

Associated term(s): Passive Data Collection

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Adequate Level of Protection

A label that the EU may apply to third-party countries who have committed to protect data through domestic law making or international commitments. Conferring of the label requires a proposal by the European Commission, an Article 29 Working Group Opinion, an opinion of the article 31 Management Committee, a right of scrutiny by the European Parliament and adoption by the European Commission.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F36-37; C24; E38, 175-178, 295

Associated term(s): Adequacy

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Adverse Action

Under the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the term “adverse action” is defined very broadly to include all business, credit and employment actions affecting consumers that can be considered to have a negative impact, such as denying or canceling credit or insurance, or denying employment or promotion. No adverse action occurs in a credit transaction where the creditor makes a counteroffer that is accepted by the consumer. Such an action requires that the decision maker furnish the recipient of the adverse action with a copy of the credit report leading to the adverse action.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US60-61; C124

Associated law(s): FCRA

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Antidiscrimination Laws

Refers to the right of people to be treated equally.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US155-156, 159-161; E100

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Application-Layer Attacks

Attacks that exploit flaws in the network applications installed on network servers. Such weaknesses exist in web browsers, e-mail server software, network routing software and other standard enterprise applications. Regularly applying patches and updates to applications may help prevent such attacks.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F102

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Authentication

The process by which an entity (such as a person or computer system) determines whether another entity is who it claims to be. Authentication identified as an individual based on some credential; i.e. a password, biometrics, etc. Authentication is different from authorization. Proper authentication ensures that a person is who he or she claims to be, but it says nothing about the access rights of the individual.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F94-95, 124, 128; C59

Associated term(s): Authorization

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Authorization

In the context of information security, it is process of determining if the end user is permitted to have access to the desired resource such as the information asset or the information system containing the asset. Authorization criteria may be based upon a variety of factors such as organizational role, level of security clearance, applicable law or a combination of factors. When effective, authentication validates that the entity requesting access is who or what it claims to be.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F97

Associated term(s): Authentication

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Behavioral Advertising

The act of tracking users’ online activities and then delivering ads or recommendations based upon the tracked activities.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F134; US22, 24; C45-47; E261-264

Acronym(s): OBA

Associated term(s): Online Behavioral Advertising, Behavioral Targeting

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Biometrics

Data concerning the intrinsic physical or behavioral characteristics of an individual. Examples include DNA, fingerprints, retina and iris patterns, voice, face, handwriting, keystroke technique and gait.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F95; E238

Associated term(s): Personal Information

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Breach Disclosure

The requirement that a data controller notify regulators and victims of incidents affecting the confidentiality and security of personal data. It is a transparency mechanism highlights operational failures, this helps mitigate damage and aids in the understanding of causes of failure.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F108-111; US117-118; C60-61, C129; E42, E159-161; G101-103

Associated law(s): FCRA, GLBA, HIPAA, various U.S. state laws

Associated term(s): Breach notification

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Bring Your Own Device

Use of employees’ own personal computing devices for work purposes.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US171-172

Acronym(s): BYOD

Associated term(s): Consumerization of information technology (COIT)

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Caching

The saving of local copies of downloaded content, reducing the need to repeatedly download content. To protect privacy, pages that display personal information should be set to prohibit caching.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F117

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Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) of 1998

A U.S. federal law that applies to the operators of commercial websites and online services that are directed to children under the age of 13. It also applies to general audience websites and online services that have actual knowledge that they are collecting personal information from children under the age of 13. COPPA requires these website operators: to post a privacy policy on the homepage of the website; provide notice about collection practices to parents; obtain verifiable parental consent before collecting personal information from children; give parents a choice as to whether their child’s personal information will be disclosed to third parties; provide parents access and the opportunity to delete the child’s personal information and opt out of future collection or use of the information, and maintain the confidentiality, security and integrity of personal information collected from children.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F43, 126-127; US107-11; C127-128; G94-98; M9, 38, 146

Acronym(s): COPPA

Associated term(s): 15 U.S.C. §§ 6501-6508

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Choice

An individual’s ability to determine whether or how their personal information may be used or disclosed by the entity that collected the information. Also, the ability of an individual to limit certain uses of their personal information. For example; an individual may have choice about whether to permit a company to contact them or share their data with third parties. Can be express or implied.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F16; US6, 21; C62, 115, 121; E105-106

Associated term(s): Consent

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Ciphertext

Encrypted (enciphered) data.

Associated term(s): NIST SP 800-21

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Closed Circuit Television

Systems of cameras, monitors and recording equipment that are not used for broadcasting but are connected to a closed network by cables. CCTV is used primarily for video surveillance of premises.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F11; US168; C165; E228, 233-238

Acronym(s): CCTV

Associated term(s): Video Surveillance

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Cloud Computing

The storage of information on the Internet. Although it is an evolving concept, definitions typically include on-demand accessibility, scalability, and secure access from almost any location. Cloud storage presents unique security risks.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F86, 139-141; E269

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Collection Limitation

A fair information practices principle, it is the principle stating there should be limits to the collection of personal data, that any such data should be obtained by lawful and fair means and, where appropriate, with the knowledge or consent of the data subject.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F17, 20; M35

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Communications Privacy

One of the four classes of privacy, along with information privacy, bodily privacy and territorial privacy. It encompasses protection of the means of correspondence, including postal mail, telephone conversations, electronic e-mail and other forms of communicative behavior and apparatus.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F2; US85-102; C3-4

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Computer Forensics

The discipline of assessing and examining an information system for relevant clues even after it has been compromised by an exploit.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F107; C4-5

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Confidentiality

The obligation of an individual, organization or business to protect personal information and not misuse or wrongfully disclose that information.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F77, G46

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Consent

This privacy requirement is one of the fair information practices. Individuals must be able to prevent the collection of their personal data, unless the disclosure is required by law. If an individual has choice (see Choice) about the use or disclosure of his or her information, consent is the individuals’ way of giving permission for the use or disclosure. Consent may be affirmative; i.e., opt-in; or implied; i.e., the individual didn’t opt out. (1) Explicit Consent: A requirement that an individual "signifies" his or her agreement with a data controller by some active communication between the parties. According to the EU Data Protection Directive, explicit consent is required for processing of sensitive information. Further, data controllers cannot infer consent from non-response to a communication. (2) Implicit Consent: Implied consent arises where consent may reasonably be inferred from the action or inaction of the individual.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F16; C28, G178

Associated term(s): Choice

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Cookie

A small text file stored on a client machine that may later be retrieved by a web server from the machine. Cookies allow web servers to keep track of the end user’s browser activities, and connect individual web requests into a session. Cookies can also be used to prevent users from having to be authorized for every password protected page they access during a session by recording that they have successfully supplied their user name and password already. Cookies may be referred to as "first-party" (if they are placed by the website that is visited) or "third-party" (if they are placed by a party other than the visited website). Additionally, they may be referred to as "session cookies" if they are deleted when a session ends, or "persistent cookies" if they remain longer.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F38, 75, 135-137; C46; E274-275; G37, 95, 97

Associated term(s): First-Party Cookie, Persistent Cookie, Session Cookie, Third-Party Cookie, Tracking Cookie, Web Cookie

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Cross-site Scripting

Code injected by malicious web users into web pages viewed by other users.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F119

Acronym(s): XSS

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Cryptography

The science or practice of hiding information, usually through its transformation. Common cryptographic functions include: encryption, decryption, digital signature and non-repudiation.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F97, 118

Associated term(s): Digital signature, encryption, non-repudiation, PKI

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Customer Access

A customer’s ability to access the personal information collected on them as well as review, correct or delete any incorrect information.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F122-123; US58; G13

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Customer Information

In contrast to employee information, customer information includes data relating to the clients of private-sector organizations, patients within the healthcare sector and the general public within the context of public-sector agencies that provide services.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F10

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Data Breach

The unauthorized acquisition of computerized data that compromises the security, confidentiality, or integrity of personal information maintained by a data collector. Breaches do not include good faith acquisitions of personal information by an employee or agent of the data collector for a legitimate purpose of the data collector—provided the personal information is not used for a purpose unrelated to the data collector's business or subject to further unauthorized disclosure.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F104-111; G5-6, 115

Associated term(s): Breach, Privacy Breach (Canadian)

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Data Controller

An entity that has the authority over the processing of personal information. This entity is the focus of most obligations under privacy and data protection laws. It controls the use of personal data by determining the purposes for its use and the manner in which the data will be processed. The data controller may be an individual or an organization that is legally treated as an individual, such as a corporation or partnership.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F8; E57-59, 288; G10-11

Associated term(s): Data Processor

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Data Elements

The different types of personal information processed by data processors. Typical data elements include name, date of birth and numerical identifiers. Organizational data elements tied to both individuals as well as organizations include business addresses, business phone numbers, business e-mail addresses and related information.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F5; US49

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Data Matching

An activity that involves comparing personal data obtained from a variety of sources, including personal information banks, for the purpose of making decisions about the individuals to whom the data pertains.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: C87-89; G25-27, 160-161

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Data Processing

Any operation or set of operations which is performed on personal data, such as collecting; recording; organizing; storing; adapting or altering; retrieving; consulting; using; disclosing by transmission, dissemination or otherwise making the data available; aligning or combining data, or blocking, erasing or destroying data. Not limited to automatic means.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F35-36

Associated term(s): Data Processor, Processing, Processor

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Data Processor

An individual or organization that processes data on behalf of the data controller. Although they are often third-party providers, a data controller can also be a data processor.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F8; E57, 61-62, 288

Associated term(s): Data Controller, Processor

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Data Protection Authority

An official or body that ensures compliance with data protection laws and investigates alleged breaches of the laws’ provisions.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F31; E39; M41

Acronym(s): DPA

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Data Quality

A fair information practices principle, it is the principle that personal data should be relevant to the purposes for which it is to be used, and, to the extent necessary for those purposes, should be accurate, complete and kept up-to-date. The quality of data is judged by four criteria: Does it meet the business needs?; Is it accurate?; Is it complete?, and is it recent? Data is of an appropriate quality if these criteria are satisfied for a particular application.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F22; C19; E2; G10, 20; M35

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Data Recipient

A natural or legal person, public authority, agency or any other body which processes personal data on behalf of the data controller.

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Data Subject

The individual about whom information is being processed, such as the patient at a medical facility, the employee of a company or the customer of a retail store.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F8; E63; G10, 137

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Deidentification

An action that one takes to remove identifying characteristics from data. De-identified data is information that does not actually identify an individual.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F5-7; US49; G91

Associated term(s): Anonymization, Anonymized Data, Deidentified Data, Pseudonymization, Pseudonymized Data

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Digital Fingerprinting

The use of log files to identify a website visitor. It is often used for security and system maintenance purposes. Log files generally include: the IP address of the visitor; a time stamp; the URL of the requested page or file; a referrer URL, and the visitor’s web browser, operating system and font preferences. In some cases, combining this information can be used to “fingerprint” a device. This more detailed information varies enough among computing devices that two devices are unlikely to be the same. It is used as a security technique by financial institutions and others initiating additional security assurances before allowing users to log on from a new device. Some privacy enforcement agencies; however, have questioned what would constitute sufficient notice and consent for digital fingerprinting techniques to be used for targeted advertising.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US138

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Digital Signature

A means for ensuring the authenticity of an electronic document, such as an e-mail, text file, spreadsheet or image file. If anything is changed in the electronic document after the digital signature is attached, the signature is rendered invalid.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US97

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Do Not Track

A proposed regulatory policy, similar to the existing Do Not Call Registry in the United States, which would allow consumers to opt out of web-usage tracking.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F75, 134; US22, 24

Acronym(s): DNT

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Electronic Communications Data

Consists of three main categories of personal data: the content of a communication, traffic data and location data.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: E229

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Electronic Communications Network

Transmission systems, and, where applicable, switching or routing equipment and other resources that permit the conveyance of signals by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic means, including satellite networks; fixed and mobile terrestrial networks; electricity cable systems, to the extent that they are used for the purpose of transmitting signals; networks used for radio and television broadcasting, and cable television networks, irrespective of the type of information conveyed.

Acronym(s): ECN

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Electronic Communications Service

Any service which provides to users thereof the ability to send or receive wire or electronic communications.

Acronym(s): ECS

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Electronic Surveillance

Monitoring through electronic means; i.e., video surveillance, intercepting communications, stored communications or location based services.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US147, 157, 168

Associated law(s): Electronic Communications Privacy Act, Stored Communications Act, Wiretap Act

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Encryption

The process of obscuring information, often through the use of a cryptographic scheme in order to make the information unreadable without special knowledge; i.e., the use of code keys.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F34, 88-89, 96-97, 124-125; US35; G7, 93, 121, 158

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Encryption Key

A cryptographic algorithm applied to unencrypted text to disguise its value or to decrypt encrypted text.

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EU Data Protection Directive

Several directives deal with personal data usage in the EU, but the most overarching is the general policy approved by the European Commission in 1995 (95/46EC) which protects individuals’ privacy and personal data use. The Directive was adopted in 1995, became effective in 1998 and protects individuals’ privacy and personal data use. The Directive recognizes the European view that privacy is a fundamental human right and establishes a general comprehensive legal framework that is aimed at protecting individuals and promoting individual choice regarding the processing of personal data. The Directive imposes an onerous set of requirements on any person that collects or processes data pertaining to individuals in their personal or professional capacity. It is based on a set of data protection principles, which include the legitimate basis, purpose limitation, data quality, proportionality and transparency principles, data security and confidentiality, data subjects’ rights of access, rectification, deletion and objection, restrictions on onwards transfers, additional protection where special categories of data and direct marketing are involved and a prohibition on automated individual decisions. The Directive applies to all sectors of industry, from financial institutions to consumer goods companies, and from list brokers to any employer. The Directive’s key provisions impose severe restrictions on personal data processing, grant individual rights to “data subjects” and set forth specific procedural obligations including notification to national authorities. This was followed in 1997 by a more specific directive for the telecom sector (97/66/EC), which was replaced in mid-2002 by the European institutions to adapt it to new technologies and business practices (2002/58/EC). The Directive has been supplemented by additional directives including a specific provision for e-commerce.

There is currently a proposal from the European Commission for an EU Data Protection Regulation that would supersede the directive if passed.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F18-19, 34-41; E37; M30, 39

Associated term(s): Data Protection Directive

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Extensible Markup Language

A markup language that facilitates the transport, creation, retrieval and storage of documents. Similar to HTML, XML uses tags to describe the contents of a web page or file. XML describes content of a web page in terms of the data that is being produced, potentially creating automatic processing of data in ways that may require attention for privacy issues, unlike HTML, which describes the content of a web page in terms of how it should be displayed.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F116

Acronym(s): XML

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Extranet

A network system formed through the connection of two or more corporate intranets. These external networks create inherent security risks, while often also meeting important organizational goals. An extranet opens a backdoor into the internal network and provides a third party with a level of trust. While these risks cannot be eliminated, they can be assessed, managed and mitigated. The foundation of this management is a thorough and detailed e-business contract that specifies who may access data, what data will be accessed and what security controls the partner has in place. It should also detail how shared devices will be managed, procedures for cooperating with technical staff in the event of problems and escalation procedures for resolving difficult technical problems.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F86-87

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Flash

Software that is used to add animation and other visual effects to web-based content.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F119

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GET Method

The GET and POST HTML method attributes specify how form data is sent to a web page. The GET method appends the form data to the URL in name/value pairs allowing passwords and other sensitive information collected in a form to be visible in the browser’s address bar, and is thus less secure than the POST method.

Associated term(s): POST Method

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Global Privacy Enforcement Network

GPEN aims to promote cross-border information sharing as well as investigation and enforcement cooperation among privacy authorities around the world. Another cross-border enforcement cooperation effort is the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US25

Acronym(s): GPEN

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HTML

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Hyperlink

Linked graphic or text that is used to connect an end user to other websites, parts of websites or web-enabled services. The URL of a web location is embedded in the HTML code, so that when certain words or images are selected through the web browser, the end user is transported to the destination website or page.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F117

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Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)

A content authoring language used to create web pages. Web browsers use HTML to interpret and render visible and audible content from the web pages. Document “tags” can be used to format and lay out web page content and to “hyperlink”—connect dynamically—to other web content. Forms, links, pictures and text may all be added with minimal commands. Headings are also embedded into the text and are used by web servers to process commands and return data with each request.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F116

Acronym(s): HTML

Associated term(s): HTTP, HTTPS

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Hypertext Transfer Protocol

A networking language that manages data packets over the Internet. It defines how messages are formatted and transmitted over a TCP/IP network for websites. Further, it defines what actions Web servers and web browsers take in response to various commands.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F115

Acronym(s): HTTP

Associated term(s): HTML, HTTPS

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Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure

A secure network communication method, technically not a protocol in itself, HTTPS is the result of layering the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) on top of the SSL/TLS protocol, thus adding the security capabilities of SSL/TLS to standard HTTP communications.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F118

Acronym(s): HTTPS

Associated term(s): HTTP, SSL/TLS

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Information Life Cycle

Collection, processing, use, disclosure, retention, and destruction.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F13, 16; G176

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Information Privacy

One of the four classes of privacy, along with territorial privacy, bodily privacy, and communications privacy. The claim of individuals, groups or institutions to determine for themselves when, how and to what extent information about them is communicated to others.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F2-4, 77-78; G8-13

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Information Security

The protection of information for the purposes of preventing loss, unauthorized access and/or misuse. It is also the process of assessing threats and risks to information and the procedures and controls to preserve confidentiality, integrity and availability of information.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks : F77-112; G45

Acronym(s): IS

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Internet Protocol Address

A unique string of numbers that identifies a computer on the Internet or other TCP/IP network. The IP address is expressed in four groups of up to three numbers, separated by periods. For example: 123.123.23.2. An address may be "dynamic," meaning that it is assigned temporarily whenever a device logs on to a network or an Internet service provider and consequently may be different each time a device connects. Alternatively, an address may be "static," meaning that it is assigned to a particular device and does not change, but remains assigned to one computer or device.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F6-7, 118; E278-279

Acronym(s): IP Address

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Internet Service Provider

A company that provides Internet access to homes and businesses through modem dial-up, DSL, cable modem broadband, dedicated T1/T3 lines or wireless connections.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F7, 118

Acronym(s): ISP

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ISO 27002

The ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 27002 standard is a code of practice for information security with hundreds of potential controls and control mechanisms. The standard is intended to provide a guide for the development of "organizational security standards and effective security management practices and to help build confidence in inter-organizational activities".

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F81-82

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Javascript

A computer scripting language used to produce interactive and dynamic web content.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F118-119

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Just-in-Time Notification

Disclosure of specific information practices posted, usually accompanied by a consent request, at the point of information collection

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F122; C8

Acronym(s): JIT Notice

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Layered Notice

A privacy notice designed to respond to problems with a excessively long notices. A short notice—the top layer—provides a user with the key elements of the privacy notice. The full notice—the bottom layer—covers all the intricacies in full. In Europe, the Article 29 Working Party recommends three layers: a short notice, a condensed notice and a full notice.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F121-122; US63-64; E120-122

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Layered Security Policy

A layered approach defines three levels of security policies. The top layer is a high-level document containing the controller’s policy statement. The next layer is a more detailed document that sets out the controls that will be implemented to achieve the policy statements. The third layer is the most detailed and contains the operating procedures, which explain how the policy statements will be achieved in practice.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: E152-153

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Least Privilege

A security control where access is granted at the lowest possible level required to perform the function.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F94

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Local Area Network

Networks that exist within an operational facility. They are considered within local operational control and are relatively easy to manage.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F85-86

Acronym(s): LAN

Associated term(s): WAN

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Location-Based Service

Services that utilize information about location to deliver, in various contexts, a wide array of applications and services, including social networking, gaming and entertainment. Such services typically rely upon GPS, RFID or similar technologies in which geolocation is used to identify the real-world geographic location of an object, such as a cell phone or an Internet-connected computer terminal.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F141; US170; E242-245

Acronym(s): LBS

Associated term(s): Geolocation; GPS; Global Positioning System; RFID

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Logs

A record of both normal and suspect events by a computer system (typically an operating system). The application log contains events logged by applications or programs. For example, a database program might record a file error in the application log. The program developer decides which events to record. The system log contains events logged by the operating system components; for example, the failure of a driver or other system component to load during startup is recorded in the system log. The event types logged by system components are predetermined for the operating system. The security log can record security events, such as valid and invalid log-in attempts as well as events related to resource use, such as creating, opening, or deleting files. An administrator can specify what events are recorded in the security log. For example, if you have enabled log-in auditing, attempts to log in to the system are recorded in the security log.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F80, 101, 106

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Multi-Factor Authentication

The authentication of a user by multiple means. This is typically accomplished by a requirement for both a password and at least one other form of authentication such as a pass card, biometric scan or an "out of band" means such as a phone call.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F94-95

Associated term(s): Two-Factor Authentication; Two-Step Authentication

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Network-Layer Attacks

Attacks that exploit the basic network protocol in order to gain any available advantage. These attacks generally involve “spoofing” a network address so that a computer sends data to an intruder rather than their proper recipient or destination. Other attacks can involve service disruptions through a denial of service (DOS) attack—a brute force method that overloads the capacity of a website’s domain to respond to incoming requests such that it renders the server inoperable.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F102

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OECD Guidelines

(1)The Collection Limitation Principle. There should be limits to the collection of personal data and any such data should be obtained by lawful and fair means and, where appropriate, with the knowledge or consent of the data subject. (2)The Data Quality Principle. Personal data should be relevant to the purposes for which they are to be used, and, to the extent necessary for those purposes, should be accurate, complete and kept up-to-date. (3)The Purpose Specification Principle. The purposes for which personal data are collected should be specified not later than at the time of data collection and the subsequent use limited to the fulfillment of those purposes or such others as are not incompatible with those purposes and as are specified on each occasion of change of purpose. (4)The Use Limitation Principle. Personal data should not be disclosed, made available or otherwise used for purposes other than those specified in accordance with Paragraph 8 (below) except a) with the consent of the data subject; or b) by the authority of law. (5)The Security Safeguards Principle. Personal data should be protected by reasonable security safeguards against such risks as loss or unauthorized access, destruction, use, modification or disclosure of data. (6)The Openness Principle. There should be a general policy of openness about developments, practices and policies with respect to personal data. Means should be readily available of establishing the existence and nature of personal data, and the main purposes of their use, as well as the identity and usual residence of the data controller. (7)The Individual Participation Principle. An individual should have the right: a) to obtain from a data controller, or otherwise, confirmation of whether or not the data controller has data relating to him; b) to have data relating to him communicated to him, within a reasonable time, at a charge, if any, that is not excessive; in a reasonable manner; and in a form that is readily intelligible to him; c) to be given reasons if a request made under subparagraphs (a) and (b) is denied, and to be able to challenge such denial, and d) to challenge data relating to him and, if the challenge is successful to have the data erased, rectified, completed or amended.(8) The Accountability Principle. A data controller should be accountable for complying with measures which give effect to the principles stated above.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F17-18; US13; E7-9; G10-11

Associated term(s): OECD Guidelines Governing the Protection of Privacy and Transborder Data Flows of Personal Data (1980)

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Omnibus Laws

Laws in which the government has defined requirements throughout the economy including public-sector, private-sector and health-sector.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US16

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Online Behavioral Advertising

Websites or online advertising services that engage in the tracking or analysis of search terms, browser or user profiles, preferences, demographics, online activity, offline activity, location data, etc., and offer advertising based on that tracking.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F134; US22, 24; C45-47; E261-264

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Opt-In

One of two central concepts of choice. It means an individual makes an active affirmative indication of choice; i.e., checking a box signaling a desire to share his or her information with third parties.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F16; US38-40; C116-117; E136; G171

Associated term(s): Choice; Consent; Opt-Out

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Opt-Out

One of two central concepts of choice. It means that an individual’s lack of action implies that a choice has been made; i.e., unless an individual checks or unchecks a box, his or her information will be shared with third parties.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F16; US38-40; C116-117; E136

Associated term(s): Choice; Consent; Opt-In

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Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

An international organization that promotes policies designed to achieve the highest sustainable economic growth, employment and a rising standard of living in both member and non-member countries, while contributing to the world economy.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F17-18; US13, 24; C18; E7; G10-11; M27, 50

Acronym(s): OECD

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Perimeter Controls

Technologies and processes that are designed to secure an entire network environment by preventing penetration from the outside.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F100

Associated term(s): Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS), Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS), Internet Protocol Security (IPSEC), Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

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Personal Information

May refer to either a generic term for information, or an EU term for such information. In the U.S., such information may be referred to as Personally Identifiable Information

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F4-7, 39; G4-5; M36

Acronym(s): PI

Associated term(s): Personal Data; Personally Identifying Information; Personally Identifiable Information

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Phishing

E-mails or other communications that are designed to trick a user into believing that he or she should provide a password, account number or other information. The user then typically provides that information to a website controlled by the attacker. “Spear phishing” is a phishing attack that is tailored to the individual user, such as when an e-mail appears to be from the user’s boss, instructing the user to provide information.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F119, 132

Associated term(s): Spear Phishing; Social Engineering

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POST Method

The GET and POST HTML method attributes specify how form data is sent to a web page. The POST method is more secure than GET as the GET method appends the form data to the URL allowing passwords and other sensitive information collected in a form to be visible in the browser’s address bar.

Associated term(s): GET Method

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Privacy by Design

The concept that organizations need to build privacy directly into technology, systems and practices at the design phase, thereby ensuring the existence of privacy from the outset. Originating in the mid-1990s by the Information and Privacy Commissioner of Ontario, the principle has gained recognition around the globe, including from the U.S. Federal Trade Commission and the European Commission. Privacy by Design consists of seven foundational principles: (1) Proactive not Reactive; Preventative not Remedial. Privacy by Design anticipates and prevents privacy invasive events before they happen, rather than waiting for privacy risks to materialize; (2) Privacy as the Default Setting. No action is required by individuals to maintain their privacy; it is built into the system by default. This concept has been introduced in the European Commission’s draft regulation to reform data protection. (3) Privacy Embedded into Design. Privacy is an essential component of the core functionality being designed and delivered. The FTC has adopted this principle in its proposed consumer privacy framework, calling for companies to promote consumer privacy throughout the organization and at every stage of product development. (4) Full Functionality—Positive-Sum, not Zero-Sum: Privacy by Design seeks to accommodate all legitimate interests and objectives, rather than making unnecessary trade-offs. (5) End-to-End Security—Full Lifecycle Protection. Strong security measures are essential to privacy, from start to finish of the lifecycle of data. This is another principle the FTC has adopted in its proposed consumer privacy framework.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F14-15, 128; US21; M88-90, 121-122

Acronym(s): PbD

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Privacy Notice

A statement made to a data subject that describes how the organization collects, uses, retains and discloses personal information. A privacy notice is sometimes referred to as a privacy statement, a fair processing statement or sometimes a privacy policy. Special privacy notices are also mandated by specific laws such a GLBA and COPPA in the united states.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F16; US16-18, 37; G95-97, 100

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Privacy Officer

An official responsible for the coordination and implementation of all privacy and confidentiality efforts within a government department or component. This official may be statutorily mandated, as in the Department of Homeland Security, or appointed by a department or component to handle privacy and other related matters.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: G3-4, 40

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Privacy Policy

An internal statement that governs an organization or entity’s handling practices of personal information. It is directed at the users of the personal information. A privacy policy instructs employees on the collection and the use of the data, as well as any specific rights the data subjects may have.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F11; US16-18; G134-136

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Protected Health Information

Any individually identifiable health information transmitted or maintained in any form or medium that is held by a covered entity or its business associate; identifies the individual or offers a reasonable basis for identification; is created or received by a covered entity or an employer, and relates to a past, present or future physical or mental condition, provision of healthcare or payment for healthcare to that individual.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US46; G91; M37

Acronym(s): PHI

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Public Key Infrastructure

A system of digital certificates, authorities and other registration entities that verifies the authenticity of each party involved in an electronic transaction through the use of cryptography.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F96-97

Acronym(s): PKI

Associated term(s): Cryptography

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Public Records

Information collected and maintained by a government entity and available to the general public.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F7, 71

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Radio-Frequency Identification

Technologies that use radio waves to identify people or objects carrying encoded microchips.

Acronym(s): RFID

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Reidentification

The process of using publicly available information to re-associate personally identifying information with data that has been anonymized.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: G71-72, 91, 165-166

Associated term(s): Deidentification; anonymization

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Retention

Within the information lifecycle the concept that organizations should retain personal information only as long as necessary to fulfill the stated purpose.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F16; G22

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Right of Access

Generally, the right of individuals to obtain data about themselves from data controllers upon request. The right is accorded under Article 12 of the Data Protection Directive, although member states are afforded some latitude to implement the rule. In Canada, the right is provided by PIPEDA. In the U.S., The Privacy Act provides only U.S. Citizens and lawful permanent residents right of access to their own records, whereas FOIA provides a general right of access to agency records for any requester seeking access to such records.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: C76-77; E126; G28

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Role-Based Access Controls

Access policies that espouse the view that no employee should have greater information access than is necessary to capably perform his or her job function.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F94

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Seal Programs

Programs that require participants to abide by codes of information practices and submit to monitoring to ensure compliance. In return, companies that abide by the terms of the seal program are allowed to display the programs seal on their website.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F33-34; US24; C5

Associated term(s): Self-regulatory Model, WebTrust

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Secret Key

“A cryptographic key used with a secret key cryptographic algorithm, uniquely associated with one or more entities and which shall not be made public. The use of the term ’secret’ in this context does not imply a classification level, rather the term implies the need to protect the key from disclosure or substitution.” (Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 140-1, Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules)

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Security Safeguards

A fair information practices principle, it is the principle that personal data should be protected by reasonable security safeguards against such risks as loss or unauthorized access, destruction, use, modification or disclosure of data.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F18, 21; G10; M35

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Social Engineering

A general term for how attackers can try to persuade a user to provide information or create some other sort of security vulnerability.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F119-120; M170-171

Associated term(s): Phishing

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SPAM

Unsolicited commercial e-mail.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F131-132; C128; E42-43, 265

Associated law(s): CASL; CAN-SPAM Act

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Syndicated Content

Content that is not actually created by the host site, but is developed, purchased or licensed from a third party. A concern associated with this content is that it can contain malicious code that is then unwittingly incorporated into the organization’s own website source code. For example, cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks attempt to take advantage of the trust that users have for a given site.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F129

Associated term(s): XSS

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Transfer

Sending personal data cross-border or from one company to another, which is necessary for operation of the company or for providing a service to a customer.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: E75, 174

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Transmission Control Protocol

A protocol which enables two devices to establish a connection and exchange data. A combination of TCP and IP is used to send data over the Internet. Data are sent in the form of a packet, which is a portion of a message sent over the TCP/IP network. It contains content and a heading that specifies the destination.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F118

Acronym(s): TCP; TCP/IP

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Transport Layer Security

A protocol that ensures privacy between client-server applications and Internet users of the applications. When a server and client communicate, TLS secures the connection to ensure that no third party can eavesdrop on or corrupt the message. TLS is a successor to SSL.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F118, 124-125

Acronym(s): TLS

Associated term(s): Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

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Trojan Horse

A form of malware in which bad software masquerades as beneficial software.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F99

Associated term(s): Malware

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Uniform Resource Locator

The address of content located on a web server. Specifically, it is the letter and number coordinates that an end user submits to the web browser to instruct it to connect with the desired website. An example of a URL is “http://www.privacyassociation.org.”

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F131-132

Acronym(s): URL

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Use Limitation

A fair information practices principle, it is the principle that personal data should not be disclosed, made available or otherwise used for purposes other than those specified in accordance with Paragraph 8 of the Fair Information Practice Principles except with the consent of the data subject or by the authority of law.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F18, 20; C19; E232-233, 260; G7

Associated term(s): Fair Information Practices

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Value-Added Services

A telecommunications industry term for non-core services; i.e., services beyond voice calls and fax transmissions. More broadly, the term is used in the service sector to refer to services, which are available at little or no cost, and promote their primary business. For mobile phones, while technologies like SMS, MMS and GPRS are usually considered value-added services, a distinction may also be made between standard (peer-to-peer) content and premium-charged content. These are called mobile value-added services (MVAS), which are often simply referred to as VAS. Value-added services are supplied either in-house by the mobile network operator themselves or by a third-party value-added service provider (VASP), also known as a content provider (CP) such as All Headline News or Reuters. VASPs typically connect to the operator using protocols like short message peer-to-peer protocol (SMPP), connecting either directly to the short message service centre (SMSC) or, increasingly, to a messaging gateway that gives the operator better control of the content.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: C117; E232-233, 260

Associated term(s): MVAS, VASP

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Virtual Private Network

A network that uses primarily public telecommunication infrastructure, such as the Internet, to provide remote offices or traveling users an access to a central organizational network. VPNs typically require remote users of the network to be authenticated and often secure data with encryption technologies to prevent disclosure of private information to unauthorized parties.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F87

Acronym(s): VPN

Associated term(s): Remote Access Connectivity

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Voice Over Internet Protocol

A technology that allows telephone calls to be made over a LAN or the Internet itself. Skype is a well-known example. VoIP poses the same risk as network-connected PBX systems but also poses the additional risk of data interception when such data travel over an unsecured connection. VoIP functionality should be encrypted where possible and equipment monitored with intrusion-detection systems.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F88; US100

Acronym(s): VoIP

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Web Beacon

Also known as a web bug, pixel tag or clear GIF, a web beacon is a clear graphic image (typically one pixel in size) that is delivered through a web browser or HTML e-mail. The web beacon operates as a tag that records an end user’s visit to a particular web page or viewing of a particular e-mail. It is also often used in conjunction with a web cookie and provided as part of a third-party tracking service. Web beacons provide an ability to produce specific profiles of user behavior in combination with web server logs. Common usage scenarios for web beacons include online ad impression counting, file download monitoring, and ad campaign performance management. Web beacons also can report to the sender about which e-mails are read by recipients. Privacy considerations for web beacons are similar to those for cookies. Some sort of notice is important because the clear pixel of a web beacon is quite literally invisible to the end user.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F138; G66

Associated term(s): Web Bug, Pixel Tag, Tracking Bug, Clear GIF

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Wide Area Network

A non-localized telecommunications network that can be used to transmit data across large regions.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F86

Acronym(s): WAN

Associated term(s): LAN; Local Area Network

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Worm

A computer program or algorithm that replicates itself over a computer network, usually performing malicious actions.

Associated term(s): Flash Worm

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