Textbook Key

F: Foundations of Information Privacy and Data Protection

US: U.S. Private-sector Privacy

C: Canadian Privacy

E: European Privacy

G: U.S. Government Privacy

IT: Privacy in Information Technology

M: Privacy Program Management

Find the terms that relate to the program or designation you are studying for by using the tabs below to narrow your search.




Accountability

A fair information practices principle, it is the idea that when personal information is to be transferred to another person or organization, the personal information controller should obtain the consent of the individual or exercise due diligence and take reasonable steps to ensure that the recipient person or organization will protect the information consistently with other fair use principles.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F18, 21-22; US34-35; C39, 101, 122; E8; G13; M35

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Act Respecting the Protection of Personal Information in the Private Sector

A Québéquois privacy law that, other than different terminology, is similar to PIPEDA, though at a province level. It came into force in 1994 and espouses three principles: (1) Every person who establishes a file on another person must have a serious and legitimate reason for doing so; (2) The person establishing the file may not deny the individual concerned access to the information contained in the file; (3) The person must also respect certain rules that are applicable to the collection, storage, use and communication of this information.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F48-49, C35-37

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Active Data Collection

When an end user deliberately provides information, typically through the use of web forms, text boxes, check boxes or radio buttons.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F128

Associated term(s): Passive Data Collection

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Adequate Level of Protection

A label that the EU may apply to third-party countries who have committed to protect data through domestic law making or international commitments. Conferring of the label requires a proposal by the European Commission, an Article 29 Working Group Opinion, an opinion of the article 31 Management Committee, a right of scrutiny by the European Parliament and adoption by the European Commission.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F36-37; C24; E38, 175-178, 295

Associated term(s): Adequacy

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Adverse Action

Under the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the term “adverse action” is defined very broadly to include all business, credit and employment actions affecting consumers that can be considered to have a negative impact, such as denying or canceling credit or insurance, or denying employment or promotion. No adverse action occurs in a credit transaction where the creditor makes a counteroffer that is accepted by the consumer. Such an action requires that the decision maker furnish the recipient of the adverse action with a copy of the credit report leading to the adverse action.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US60-61; C124

Associated law(s): FCRA

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American Institute of Certified Public Accountants

A U.S. professional organization of certified public accountants and co-creator of the WebTrust seal program.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: C61-62; M50, 86

Acronym(s): AICPA

Associated term(s): Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants, Seal Programs, WebTrust

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Antidiscrimination Laws

Refers to the right of people to be treated equally.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US155-156, 159-161; E100

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APEC Privacy Principles

A set of non-binding principles adopted by the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperative (APEC) that mirror the OECD Fair Information Privacy Practices. Though based on OECD Guidelines, they seek to promote electronic commerce throughout the Asia-Pacific region by balancing information privacy with business needs.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F19-20; US40-41; C120-122; G11-13; M27

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Application-Layer Attacks

Attacks that exploit flaws in the network applications installed on network servers. Such weaknesses exist in web browsers, e-mail server software, network routing software and other standard enterprise applications. Regularly applying patches and updates to applications may help prevent such attacks.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F102

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Article 29 Working Party

A European Union organization that functions as an independent advisory body on data protection and privacy. While EU data protection laws are actually enforced by the national Data Protection Authorities of EU member states.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F39; US138; C110; E198-200; C110

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Authentication

The process by which an entity (such as a person or computer system) determines whether another entity is who it claims to be. Authentication identified as an individual based on some credential; i.e. a password, biometrics, etc. Authentication is different from authorization. Proper authentication ensures that a person is who he or she claims to be, but it says nothing about the access rights of the individual.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F94-95, 124, 128; C59

Associated term(s): Authorization

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Authorization

In the context of information security, it is process of determining if the end user is permitted to have access to the desired resource such as the information asset or the information system containing the asset. Authorization criteria may be based upon a variety of factors such as organizational role, level of security clearance, applicable law or a combination of factors. When effective, authentication validates that the entity requesting access is who or what it claims to be.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F97

Associated term(s): Authentication

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Background Screening/Checks

Verifying an applicant’s ability to function in the working environment as well as assuring the safety and security of existing workers. Background checks range from checking a person’s educational background to checking on past criminal activity.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F39, 98; US158-164; E215; G158

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Behavioral Advertising

The act of tracking users’ online activities and then delivering ads or recommendations based upon the tracked activities.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F134; US22, 24; C45-47; E261-264

Acronym(s): OBA

Associated term(s): Online Behavioral Advertising, Behavioral Targeting

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Binding Corporate Rules

Legally binding internal corporate privacy rules for transferring personal information within a corporate group. BCRs are typically used by corporations that operate in multiple jurisdictions, and they are alternatives to the U.S.-EU Safe Harbor and Model Contract Clauses. BCRs must be approved by the EU data protection authorities of the member states in which the corporation operates.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F37; US25; E184-186

Acronym(s): BCR

Associated law(s): EU Data Protection Directive

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Binding Safe Processor Rules

Self-regulatory principles (similar to Binding Corporate Rules) for processors that are applicable to customer personal data. Once a supplier’s BSPR are approved, a supplier gains ”safe processor” status and its customers would be able to meet the EU Data Protection Directive’s requirements for international transfers in a similar manner as BCR allow. BSPR are currently being considered as a concept by the Article 29 Working Party and national authorities.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: E274, E296

Acronym(s): BSPR

Associated term(s): Binding Corporate Rules

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Biometrics

Data concerning the intrinsic physical or behavioral characteristics of an individual. Examples include DNA, fingerprints, retina and iris patterns, voice, face, handwriting, keystroke technique and gait.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F95; E238

Associated term(s): Personal Information

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Bodily Privacy

One of the four classes of privacy, along with information privacy, territorial privacy and communications privacy. It focuses on a person’s physical being and any invasion thereof. Such an invasion can take the form of genetic testing, drug testing or body cavity searches.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F2

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Breach Disclosure

The requirement that a data controller notify regulators and victims of incidents affecting the confidentiality and security of personal data. It is a transparency mechanism highlights operational failures, this helps mitigate damage and aids in the understanding of causes of failure.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F108-111; US117-118; C60-61, C129; E42, E159-161; G101-103

Associated law(s): FCRA, GLBA, HIPAA, various U.S. state laws

Associated term(s): Breach notification

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Caching

The saving of local copies of downloaded content, reducing the need to repeatedly download content. To protect privacy, pages that display personal information should be set to prohibit caching.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F117

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Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants

The Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants (CICA), in partnership with the provincial and territorial institutes, is responsible for the functions that are critical to the success of the Canadian CA profession. CICA, pursuant to the 2006 Protocol, is entrusted with the responsibility for providing strategic leadership, co-ordination of common critical functions of strategic planning, protection of the public and ethics, education and qualification, standard setting and communications

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: C6, 61; M50, 86

Acronym(s): CICA

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Canadian Standards Association

A non-profit standards organization that developed its own set of privacy principles and broke the OECD’s code into ten principles: (1) Accountability; (2) Identifying purposes; (3) Consent; (4) Limiting Collection; (5) Limiting Use, Disclosure, and Retention; (6) Accuracy; (7) Safeguards; (8) Openness; (9) Individual Access; (10) Challenging Compliance. These ten principles would go on to be listed in PIPEDA.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F49; C18-19

Acronym(s): CSA

Associated term(s): CSA Privacy Principles

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Case Law

Principles of law that have been established by judges in past decisions. When similar issues arise again, judges look to the past decisions as precedents and decide the new case in a manner that is consistent with past decisions.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US3

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Charter of Fundamental Rights

A treaty that consolidates human rights within the EU. The treaty states that everyone has a right to protect their personal data, that data must be processed for legitimate and specified purposes and that compliance is subject to control by an authority.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: E13, E16, E20

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Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) of 1998

A U.S. federal law that applies to the operators of commercial websites and online services that are directed to children under the age of 13. It also applies to general audience websites and online services that have actual knowledge that they are collecting personal information from children under the age of 13. COPPA requires these website operators: to post a privacy policy on the homepage of the website; provide notice about collection practices to parents; obtain verifiable parental consent before collecting personal information from children; give parents a choice as to whether their child’s personal information will be disclosed to third parties; provide parents access and the opportunity to delete the child’s personal information and opt out of future collection or use of the information, and maintain the confidentiality, security and integrity of personal information collected from children.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F43, 126-127; US107-11; C127-128; G94-98; M9, 38, 146

Acronym(s): COPPA

Associated term(s): 15 U.S.C. §§ 6501-6508

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Choice

An individual’s ability to determine whether or how their personal information may be used or disclosed by the entity that collected the information. Also, the ability of an individual to limit certain uses of their personal information. For example; an individual may have choice about whether to permit a company to contact them or share their data with third parties. Can be express or implied.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F16; US6, 21; C62, 115, 121; E105-106

Associated term(s): Consent

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Closed Circuit Television

Systems of cameras, monitors and recording equipment that are not used for broadcasting but are connected to a closed network by cables. CCTV is used primarily for video surveillance of premises.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F11; US168; C165; E228, 233-238

Acronym(s): CCTV

Associated term(s): Video Surveillance

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Cloud Computing

The storage of information on the Internet. Although it is an evolving concept, definitions typically include on-demand accessibility, scalability, and secure access from almost any location. Cloud storage presents unique security risks.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F86, 139-141; E269

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Co-regulatory Model

Emphasizes industry development of enforceable codes or standards for privacy and data protection against the backdrop of legal requirements by the government. Co-regulation can exist under both comprehensive and sectoral models.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F30, 33-34

Associated term(s): Comprehensive Laws, Sectoral Laws, Self-regulatory Model, Technology Based Model

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Collection Limitation

A fair information practices principle, it is the principle stating there should be limits to the collection of personal data, that any such data should be obtained by lawful and fair means and, where appropriate, with the knowledge or consent of the data subject.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F17, 20; M35

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Commercial Activity

Under PIPEDA, “commercial activity” means any particular transaction, act or conduct, or any regular course of conduct, that is of a commercial character, including the selling, bartering or leasing of donor, membership or other fundraising lists. Non-profit associations, unions and private schools are likely to be found to exist outside of this definition.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F49; US16; C27

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Communications Privacy

One of the four classes of privacy, along with information privacy, bodily privacy and territorial privacy. It encompasses protection of the means of correspondence, including postal mail, telephone conversations, electronic e-mail and other forms of communicative behavior and apparatus.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F2; US85-102; C3-4

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Comprehensive Laws

Laws that govern the collection, use and dissemination of personal information in the public and private sectors.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F31-32; C4-5

Associated term(s): Omnibus Laws

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Computer Forensics

The discipline of assessing and examining an information system for relevant clues even after it has been compromised by an exploit.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F107; C4-5

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Confidentiality

The obligation of an individual, organization or business to protect personal information and not misuse or wrongfully disclose that information.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F77, G46

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Consent

This privacy requirement is one of the fair information practices. Individuals must be able to prevent the collection of their personal data, unless the disclosure is required by law. If an individual has choice (see Choice) about the use or disclosure of his or her information, consent is the individuals’ way of giving permission for the use or disclosure. Consent may be affirmative; i.e., opt-in; or implied; i.e., the individual didn’t opt out. (1) Explicit Consent: A requirement that an individual "signifies" his or her agreement with a data controller by some active communication between the parties. According to the EU Data Protection Directive, explicit consent is required for processing of sensitive information. Further, data controllers cannot infer consent from non-response to a communication. (2) Implicit Consent: Implied consent arises where consent may reasonably be inferred from the action or inaction of the individual.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F16; C28, G178

Associated term(s): Choice

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Consent Decree

A judgment entered by consent of the parties. Typically, the defendant agrees to stop alleged illegal activity and pay a fine, without admitting guilt or wrongdoing. This legal document is approved by a judge and formalizes an agreement reached between a federal or state agency and an adverse party.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US4, 15-16

Associated term(s): FTC

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Cookie

A small text file stored on a client machine that may later be retrieved by a web server from the machine. Cookies allow web servers to keep track of the end user’s browser activities, and connect individual web requests into a session. Cookies can also be used to prevent users from having to be authorized for every password protected page they access during a session by recording that they have successfully supplied their user name and password already. Cookies may be referred to as "first-party" (if they are placed by the website that is visited) or "third-party" (if they are placed by a party other than the visited website). Additionally, they may be referred to as "session cookies" if they are deleted when a session ends, or "persistent cookies" if they remain longer.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F38, 75, 135-137; C46; E274-275; G37, 95, 97

Associated term(s): First-Party Cookie, Persistent Cookie, Session Cookie, Third-Party Cookie, Tracking Cookie, Web Cookie

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Cookie Directive

Additions to the e-Privacy Directive where websites could allow users to opt out of cookies, such as by selecting a setting on their web browsers. Under the revision, member states are required to pass legislation that gives users the ability to opt in before cookies are placed on their computers.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F38, 75, 134; E263-264

Associated term(s): Directive 2009/136/EC, ePrivacy Directive

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Credit Reporting Agency

Under the Fair Credit Reporting Act, any organization that regularly engages in assembling or evaluating consumer credit information or other information on consumers for the purpose of furnishing consumer reports to third parties for a fee.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US58-59; G147

Acronym(s): CRA

Associated term(s): Consumer reporting agency

Associated law(s): FCRA

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Cross-site Scripting

Code injected by malicious web users into web pages viewed by other users.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F119

Acronym(s): XSS

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Cryptography

The science or practice of hiding information, usually through its transformation. Common cryptographic functions include: encryption, decryption, digital signature and non-repudiation.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F97, 118

Associated term(s): Digital signature, encryption, non-repudiation, PKI

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Customer Access

A customer’s ability to access the personal information collected on them as well as review, correct or delete any incorrect information.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F122-123; US58; G13

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Customer Information

In contrast to employee information, customer information includes data relating to the clients of private-sector organizations, patients within the healthcare sector and the general public within the context of public-sector agencies that provide services.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F10

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Data Breach

The unauthorized acquisition of computerized data that compromises the security, confidentiality, or integrity of personal information maintained by a data collector. Breaches do not include good faith acquisitions of personal information by an employee or agent of the data collector for a legitimate purpose of the data collector—provided the personal information is not used for a purpose unrelated to the data collector's business or subject to further unauthorized disclosure.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F104-111; G5-6, 115

Associated term(s): Breach, Privacy Breach (Canadian)

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Data Controller

An entity that has the authority over the processing of personal information. This entity is the focus of most obligations under privacy and data protection laws. It controls the use of personal data by determining the purposes for its use and the manner in which the data will be processed. The data controller may be an individual or an organization that is legally treated as an individual, such as a corporation or partnership.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F8; E57-59, 288; G10-11

Associated term(s): Data Processor

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Data Elements

The different types of personal information processed by data processors. Typical data elements include name, date of birth and numerical identifiers. Organizational data elements tied to both individuals as well as organizations include business addresses, business phone numbers, business e-mail addresses and related information.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F5; US49

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Data Matching

An activity that involves comparing personal data obtained from a variety of sources, including personal information banks, for the purpose of making decisions about the individuals to whom the data pertains.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: C87-89; G25-27, 160-161

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Data Processing

Any operation or set of operations which is performed on personal data, such as collecting; recording; organizing; storing; adapting or altering; retrieving; consulting; using; disclosing by transmission, dissemination or otherwise making the data available; aligning or combining data, or blocking, erasing or destroying data. Not limited to automatic means.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F35-36

Associated term(s): Data Processor, Processing, Processor

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Data Processor

An individual or organization that processes data on behalf of the data controller. Although they are often third-party providers, a data controller can also be a data processor.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F8; E57, 61-62, 288

Associated term(s): Data Controller, Processor

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Data Protection Authority

An official or body that ensures compliance with data protection laws and investigates alleged breaches of the laws’ provisions.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F31; E39; M41

Acronym(s): DPA

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Data Protection Commissioner

The person responsible for the enforcement and monitoring of compliance with data protection legislation, including Data Protection Acts. Commissioners are also responsible for investigating breaches of the legislation and prosecuting the senders of spam e-mails and text messages pursuant to SI 535/2003. Only one such prosecution has occurred to date. In the UK, this function is carried out by the Information Commissioner.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F33

Associated term(s): Data Protection Authority

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Data Protection Directive

Several directives deal with personal data usage in the EU, but the most overarching is the general policy approved by the European Commission in 1995 (95/46EC) which protects individuals’ privacy and personal data use. The Directive was adopted in 1995, became effective in 1998 and protects individuals’ privacy and personal data use. The Directive recognizes the European view that privacy is a fundamental human right and establishes a general comprehensive legal framework that is aimed at protecting individuals and promoting individual choice regarding the processing of personal data. The Directive imposes an onerous set of requirements on any person that collects or processes data pertaining to individuals in their personal or professional capacity. It is based on a set of data protection principles, which include the legitimate basis, purpose limitation, data quality, proportionality and transparency principles, data security and confidentiality, data subjects’ rights of access, rectification, deletion and objection, restrictions on onwards transfers, additional protection where special categories of data and direct marketing are involved and a prohibition on automated individual decisions. The Directive applies to all sectors of industry, from financial institutions to consumer goods companies, and from list brokers to any employer. The Directive’s key provisions impose severe restrictions on personal data processing, grant individual rights to “data subjects” and set forth specific procedural obligations including notification to national authorities. This was followed in 1997 by a more specific directive for the telecom sector (97/66/EC), which was replaced in mid-2002 by the European institutions to adapt it to new technologies and business practices (2002/58/EC). The Directive has been supplemented by additional directives including a specific provision for e-commerce.

There is currently a proposal from the European Commission for an EU Data Protection Regulation that would supersede the directive if passed.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F18-19, 34-41; E37

Associated term(s): EU Data Protection Directive

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Data Quality

A fair information practices principle, it is the principle that personal data should be relevant to the purposes for which it is to be used, and, to the extent necessary for those purposes, should be accurate, complete and kept up-to-date. The quality of data is judged by four criteria: Does it meet the business needs?; Is it accurate?; Is it complete?, and is it recent? Data is of an appropriate quality if these criteria are satisfied for a particular application.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F22; C19; E2; G10, 20; M35

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Data Subject

The individual about whom information is being processed, such as the patient at a medical facility, the employee of a company or the customer of a retail store.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F8; E63; G10, 137

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Deceptive Trade Practices

In the context of U.S. federal law, a term associated with corporate entities who mislead or misrepresent products or services to consumers and customers. These practices are regulated in the U.S. by the Federal Trade Commission at the federal level and typically by an attorney general or office of consumer protection at the state level. Law typically provides for both enforcement by the government to stop the practice and individual actions for damages brought by consumers who are hurt by the practices.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US16

Associated term(s): Unfair Trade Practices

Associated law(s): U.S. Federal Trade Commission Act

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Deidentification

An action that one takes to remove identifying characteristics from data. De-identified data is information that does not actually identify an individual.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F5-7; US49; G91

Associated term(s): Anonymization, Anonymized Data, Deidentified Data, Pseudonymization, Pseudonymized Data

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Digital Signature

A means for ensuring the authenticity of an electronic document, such as an e-mail, text file, spreadsheet or image file. If anything is changed in the electronic document after the digital signature is attached, the signature is rendered invalid.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US97

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Direct Marketing

When the seller directly contacts an individual, in contrast to marketing through mass media such as television or radio.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F74-75; C36; E176

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Do Not Track

A proposed regulatory policy, similar to the existing Do Not Call Registry in the United States, which would allow consumers to opt out of web-usage tracking.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F75, 134; US22, 24

Acronym(s): DNT

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Electronic Health Record

A computer record of an individual's medical file that may be shared across multiple healthcare settings. In some cases this sharing can occur by way of network-connected enterprise-wide information systems and other information networks or exchanges. EHRs may include a range of data including demographics, medical history, medication and allergies, immunization status, laboratory test results, radiology images, vital signs, personal stats such as age and weight and billing information. Their accessibility and standardization can facilitate large-scale data collection for researchers.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US52; C104

Acronym(s): EHR

Associated law(s): HIPAA, HITECH

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Electronic Surveillance

Monitoring through electronic means; i.e., video surveillance, intercepting communications, stored communications or location based services.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US147, 157, 168

Associated law(s): Electronic Communications Privacy Act, Stored Communications Act, Wiretap Act

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Employment at Will

An employment contract can be terminated by either the employer or the employee at any time for any reason.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US154

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Encryption

The process of obscuring information, often through the use of a cryptographic scheme in order to make the information unreadable without special knowledge; i.e., the use of code keys.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F34, 88-89, 96-97, 124-125; US35; G7, 93, 121, 158

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Encryption Key

A cryptographic algorithm applied to unencrypted text to disguise its value or to decrypt encrypted text.

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Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, The

An independent U.S. federal agency that enforces laws against workplace discrimination. The EEOC investigates discrimination complaints based on an individual's race, color, national origin, religion, sex, age, perceived intelligence, disability and retaliation for reporting and/or opposing a discriminatory practice. It is empowered to file discrimination suits against employers on behalf of alleged victims and to adjudicate claims of discrimination brought against federal agencies.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US157

Acronym(s): EEOC

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EU Data Protection Directive

Several directives deal with personal data usage in the EU, but the most overarching is the general policy approved by the European Commission in 1995 (95/46EC) which protects individuals’ privacy and personal data use. The Directive was adopted in 1995, became effective in 1998 and protects individuals’ privacy and personal data use. The Directive recognizes the European view that privacy is a fundamental human right and establishes a general comprehensive legal framework that is aimed at protecting individuals and promoting individual choice regarding the processing of personal data. The Directive imposes an onerous set of requirements on any person that collects or processes data pertaining to individuals in their personal or professional capacity. It is based on a set of data protection principles, which include the legitimate basis, purpose limitation, data quality, proportionality and transparency principles, data security and confidentiality, data subjects’ rights of access, rectification, deletion and objection, restrictions on onwards transfers, additional protection where special categories of data and direct marketing are involved and a prohibition on automated individual decisions. The Directive applies to all sectors of industry, from financial institutions to consumer goods companies, and from list brokers to any employer. The Directive’s key provisions impose severe restrictions on personal data processing, grant individual rights to “data subjects” and set forth specific procedural obligations including notification to national authorities. This was followed in 1997 by a more specific directive for the telecom sector (97/66/EC), which was replaced in mid-2002 by the European institutions to adapt it to new technologies and business practices (2002/58/EC). The Directive has been supplemented by additional directives including a specific provision for e-commerce.

There is currently a proposal from the European Commission for an EU Data Protection Regulation that would supersede the directive if passed.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F18-19, 34-41; E37; M30, 39

Associated term(s): Data Protection Directive

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EU-U.S. Safe Harbor Agreement

An agreement between the EU and U.S. under which data may be exported to the U.S. in compliance with the EU Directive on Data Protection. Within a safe harbor agreement a data processor must abide by seven principles that and self-certify the compliance with to the Department of Commerce. These principles are notice, choice, consent to onward transfer, security, integrity, access, and enforcement. Certifying oneself as abiding by the Safe Harbor Framework without full compliance may be considered a deceptive trade practice under section 5 of the FTC Act.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F39-41; US19; C114; E295

Associated term(s): Safe Harbor

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European Commission

The executive body of the European Union. Its main function is to implement the EU’s decisions and policies, along with other functions. It is also responsible for making adequacy determinations with regard to data transfers to third-party countries.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: E274, 296

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European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms

A European convention that sought to secure the recognition and observance of the rights enunciated by the United Nations. The Convention provides that “(e)veryone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence.” Article 8 of the Convention limits a public authority’s interference with an individual’s right to privacy, but acknowledges an exception for actions in accordance with the law and necessary to preserve a democratic society.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F3; C5; E29

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European Convention on Human Rights

An international treaty among European states to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms. It applies only to member states.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: E5-6, 15

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European Council

A forum where heads of state meet four times a year to define priorities and set political direction for the EU.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: E24

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European Union

The European Union replaced the EEC, created by the Treaty of Rome, the EEC promoted a single economic market across Europe. The EU is comprised of 27 member states including Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Candidates include Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Montenegro, Serbia and Turkey.

Acronym(s): EU

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Extensible Markup Language

A markup language that facilitates the transport, creation, retrieval and storage of documents. Similar to HTML, XML uses tags to describe the contents of a web page or file. XML describes content of a web page in terms of the data that is being produced, potentially creating automatic processing of data in ways that may require attention for privacy issues, unlike HTML, which describes the content of a web page in terms of how it should be displayed.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F116

Acronym(s): XML

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Extranet

A network system formed through the connection of two or more corporate intranets. These external networks create inherent security risks, while often also meeting important organizational goals. An extranet opens a backdoor into the internal network and provides a third party with a level of trust. While these risks cannot be eliminated, they can be assessed, managed and mitigated. The foundation of this management is a thorough and detailed e-business contract that specifies who may access data, what data will be accessed and what security controls the partner has in place. It should also detail how shared devices will be managed, procedures for cooperating with technical staff in the event of problems and escalation procedures for resolving difficult technical problems.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F86-87

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Fair Credit Reporting Act, The

One of the oldest U.S. federal privacy laws still in force today. It was enacted in 1970 to mandate accurate and relevant data collection, give consumers the ability access and correct their information, and limit the use of consumer reports to permissible purposes, such as employment and extension of credit or insurance.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F4, 42; US57-64; C123-124; G147; M38

Acronym(s): FCRA

Associated law(s): Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of 2003 (FACTA)

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Fair Information Practices

(1)The Collection Limitation Principle.  There should be limits to the collection of personal data and any such data should be obtained by lawful and fair means and, where appropriate, with the knowledge or consent of the data subject. (2)The Data Quality Principle. Personal data should be relevant to the purposes for which they are to be used and, to the extent necessary for those purposes, should be accurate, complete and kept up-to-date. (3)The Purpose Specification Principle. The purposes for which personal data are collected should be specified not later than at the time of data collection and the subsequent use limited to the fulfillment of those purposes or such others as are not incompatible with those purposes and as are specified on each occasion of change of purpose. (4)The Use Limitation Principle. Personal data should not be disclosed, made available or otherwise used for purposes other than those specified in accordance with Paragraph 8 (below) except a) with the consent of the data subject, or b) by the authority of law. (5)The Security Safeguards Principle. Personal data should be protected by reasonable security safeguards against such risks as loss or unauthorized access, destruction, use, modification or disclosure of data. (6)The Openness Principle. There should be a general policy of openness about developments, practices and policies with respect to personal data. Means should be readily available of establishing the existence and nature of personal data and the main purposes of their use, as well as the identity and usual residence of the data controller. (7)The Individual Participation Principle. An individual should have the right: a) to obtain from a data controller, or otherwise, confirmation of whether or not the data controller has data relating to him; b) to have data relating to him communicated to him, within a reasonable time, at a charge, if any, that is not excessive; in a reasonable manner, and in a form that is readily intelligible to him; c) to be given reasons if a request made under subparagraphs (a) and (b) is denied and to be able to challenge such denial; and d) to challenge data relating to him and, if the challenge is successful, to have the data erased, rectified, completed or amended; (8) The Accountability Principle. A data controller should be accountable for complying with measures which give effect to the principles stated above.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F15-22; C18-20; E8-9

Acronym(s): FIPs

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Fairness

One of two requirements established by the EU Data Protection Directive for the processing of personal data. In order to be considered fair, the data controller must provide specific information to the data subject prior to processing.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: E82-83

Associated term(s): Data Controller, Lawfulness

Associated law(s): Data Protection Directive

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Federal Trade Commission

The United States' primary consumer protection agency, the FTC collects complaints about companies, business practices and identity theft under the FTC Act and other laws that they enforce or administer. Importantly, the FTC brings actions under Section 5 of the FTC Act, which prohibits unfair and deceptive trade practices.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F43; US14-20

Acronym(s): FTC

Associated law(s): FTC Act

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Final Health Breach Notification Rule

A rule, promulgated under HITECH, requiring vendors of personal health records and related entities to notify consumers when the security of their individually identifiable health information has been breached.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks:

Associated law(s): HITECH

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Flash

Software that is used to add animation and other visual effects to web-based content.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F119

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Four Classes of Privacy

Four main areas of privacy are of particular interest with regard to data protection and privacy laws and practices: information privacy, bodily privacy, territorial privacy, and communications privacy.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F2

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Freedom of Information Act, The

A U.S. federal law that ensures citizen access to federal government agency records. FOIA only applies to federal executive branch documents. It does not apply to legislative or judicial records. FOIA requests will be fulfilled unless they are subject to nine specific exemptions. Most states have some state level equivalent of FOIA. The federal and most state FOIA statutes include a specific exemption for personal information so that sensitive data (such as Social Security numbers) are not disclosed.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F44; US133-135; G20, 22, 54-62

Acronym(s): FOIA

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GET Method

The GET and POST HTML method attributes specify how form data is sent to a web page. The GET method appends the form data to the URL in name/value pairs allowing passwords and other sensitive information collected in a form to be visible in the browser’s address bar, and is thus less secure than the POST method.

Associated term(s): POST Method

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Global Privacy Enforcement Network

GPEN aims to promote cross-border information sharing as well as investigation and enforcement cooperation among privacy authorities around the world. Another cross-border enforcement cooperation effort is the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US25

Acronym(s): GPEN

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Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

The commonly used name for The Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999. The act re-organized financial services regulation in the United States and applies broadly to any company that is “significantly engaged” in financial activities in the U.S. In its privacy provisions, GLBA addresses the handling of non-public personal information, defined broadly to include a consumer’s name and address, and consumers’ interactions with banks, insurers and other financial institutions. GLBA requires financial institutions to securely store personal financial information; give notice of their policies regarding the sharing of personal financial information, and give consumers the ability to opt out of some sharing of personal financial information.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F41, 43, 68; US66-71; C125-126; G98-101; M8, 30, 38

Acronym(s): GLBA

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Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, The

Enacted as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the HITECH Act, among other objectives, further addresses privacy and security issues involving PHI as defined by HIPAA.  The HITECH privacy provisions include the introduction of categories of violations based on culpability that, in turn, are tied to tiered ranges of civil monetary penalties.  Its most noteworthy elements elaborate upon breach notifications resulting from the use or disclosure of information that compromises its security or privacy.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks (see key at bottom of page): F32; US51-52; C124-125; G92-94

Acronym(s): HITECH

Related term(s): EHR

Associated law(s): HIPAA

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Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, The

A U.S. law passed to create national standards for electronic healthcare transactions, among other purposes. HIPAA required the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to promulgate regulations to protect the privacy and security of personal health information. The basic rule is that patients have to opt-in before their information can be shared with other organizations—although there are important exceptions such as for treatment, payment and healthcare operations.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F42; US46-51; C124-125; G89-92; M9, 30, 38, 40

Acronym(s): HIPAA

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HTML

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Hyperlink

Linked graphic or text that is used to connect an end user to other websites, parts of websites or web-enabled services. The URL of a web location is embedded in the HTML code, so that when certain words or images are selected through the web browser, the end user is transported to the destination website or page.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F117

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Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)

A content authoring language used to create web pages. Web browsers use HTML to interpret and render visible and audible content from the web pages. Document “tags” can be used to format and lay out web page content and to “hyperlink”—connect dynamically—to other web content. Forms, links, pictures and text may all be added with minimal commands. Headings are also embedded into the text and are used by web servers to process commands and return data with each request.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F116

Acronym(s): HTML

Associated term(s): HTTP, HTTPS

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Hypertext Transfer Protocol

A networking language that manages data packets over the Internet. It defines how messages are formatted and transmitted over a TCP/IP network for websites. Further, it defines what actions Web servers and web browsers take in response to various commands.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F115

Acronym(s): HTTP

Associated term(s): HTML, HTTPS

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Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure

A secure network communication method, technically not a protocol in itself, HTTPS is the result of layering the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) on top of the SSL/TLS protocol, thus adding the security capabilities of SSL/TLS to standard HTTP communications.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F118

Acronym(s): HTTPS

Associated term(s): HTTP, SSL/TLS

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Individual Participation

A fair information practices principle, it is the principle that an individual should have the right: a) to obtain from a data controller, or otherwise, confirmation of whether or not the data controller has data relating to him; b) to have data relating to him communicated to him within a reasonable time; at a charge, if any, that is not excessive; in a reasonable manner, and in a form that is readily intelligible to him; c) to be given reasons if a request made under subparagraphs (a) and (b) is denied, and to be able to challenge such denial; and d) to challenge data relating to him and, if the challenge is successful, to have the data erased, rectified, completed or amended.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F18; E20; M35

Associated term(s): FIPs

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Information Life Cycle

Collection, processing, use, disclosure, retention, and destruction.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F13, 16; G176

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Information Privacy

One of the four classes of privacy, along with territorial privacy, bodily privacy, and communications privacy. The claim of individuals, groups or institutions to determine for themselves when, how and to what extent information about them is communicated to others.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F2-4, 77-78; G8-13

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Information Security

The protection of information for the purposes of preventing loss, unauthorized access and/or misuse. It is also the process of assessing threats and risks to information and the procedures and controls to preserve confidentiality, integrity and availability of information.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks : F77-112; G45

Acronym(s): IS

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International Data Transfers

The transmission of personal information from one jurisdiction to another. Many jurisdictions, most notably the European Union, place significant restrictions on such transfers. The EU requires that the receiving jurisdiction be judged to have “adequate” data protection practices.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F19, 36-37; E175-178

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Internet Protocol Address

A unique string of numbers that identifies a computer on the Internet or other TCP/IP network. The IP address is expressed in four groups of up to three numbers, separated by periods. For example: 123.123.23.2. An address may be "dynamic," meaning that it is assigned temporarily whenever a device logs on to a network or an Internet service provider and consequently may be different each time a device connects. Alternatively, an address may be "static," meaning that it is assigned to a particular device and does not change, but remains assigned to one computer or device.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F6-7, 118; E278-279

Acronym(s): IP Address

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Internet Service Provider

A company that provides Internet access to homes and businesses through modem dial-up, DSL, cable modem broadband, dedicated T1/T3 lines or wireless connections.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F7, 118

Acronym(s): ISP

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Intrusion Detection System

A system that inspects network activity and identifies suspicious patterns that may someone is attempting to penetrate or compromise a system or network. An IDS: may be network-based or host-based; signature-base or anomaly-based, and requires human intervention in order to respond to the attack.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F99-101

Acronym(s): IDS

Associated term(s): Intrusion Prevention System (IPS)

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Intrusion Prevention System

A form of access control. An IPS is much like an application firewall. Its intent is not only to detect a network attack but to prevent it. It neither requires nor involves human intervention in order to respond to a system attack.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F99-101

Acronym(s): IPS

Associated term(s): Intrusion Detection System (IDS)

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ISO 27002

The ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 27002 standard is a code of practice for information security with hundreds of potential controls and control mechanisms. The standard is intended to provide a guide for the development of "organizational security standards and effective security management practices and to help build confidence in inter-organizational activities".

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F81-82

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Javascript

A computer scripting language used to produce interactive and dynamic web content.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F118-119

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Jurisdiction

The authority of a court to hear a particular case. Courts must have jurisdiction over both the parties to the dispute (personal jurisdiction) and the type of dispute (subject matter jurisdiction). The term is also used to denote the geographical area or subject-matter to which such authority applies.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F6-7; US5; C8

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Just-in-Time Notification

Disclosure of specific information practices posted, usually accompanied by a consent request, at the point of information collection

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F122; C8

Acronym(s): JIT Notice

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Layered Notice

A privacy notice designed to respond to problems with a excessively long notices. A short notice—the top layer—provides a user with the key elements of the privacy notice. The full notice—the bottom layer—covers all the intricacies in full. In Europe, the Article 29 Working Party recommends three layers: a short notice, a condensed notice and a full notice.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F121-122; US63-64; E120-122

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Least Privilege

A security control where access is granted at the lowest possible level required to perform the function.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F94

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Limiting Use

The concept that personal information shall not be used or disclosed for purposes other than those for which it was collected, except with the consent of the individual or as required by the law.

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Local Area Network

Networks that exist within an operational facility. They are considered within local operational control and are relatively easy to manage.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F85-86

Acronym(s): LAN

Associated term(s): WAN

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Location-Based Service

Services that utilize information about location to deliver, in various contexts, a wide array of applications and services, including social networking, gaming and entertainment. Such services typically rely upon GPS, RFID or similar technologies in which geolocation is used to identify the real-world geographic location of an object, such as a cell phone or an Internet-connected computer terminal.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F141; US170; E242-245

Acronym(s): LBS

Associated term(s): Geolocation; GPS; Global Positioning System; RFID

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Logs

A record of both normal and suspect events by a computer system (typically an operating system). The application log contains events logged by applications or programs. For example, a database program might record a file error in the application log. The program developer decides which events to record. The system log contains events logged by the operating system components; for example, the failure of a driver or other system component to load during startup is recorded in the system log. The event types logged by system components are predetermined for the operating system. The security log can record security events, such as valid and invalid log-in attempts as well as events related to resource use, such as creating, opening, or deleting files. An administrator can specify what events are recorded in the security log. For example, if you have enabled log-in auditing, attempts to log in to the system are recorded in the security log.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F80, 101, 106

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Madrid Resolution

A resolution that was adopted by the International Conference of Data Protection and Privacy Commissioners, consisting of 80 data protection authorities from 42 countries around the world, including members of the Article 29 Working Party. Principles include: lawfulness and fairness; purpose specification; proportionality; data quality; openness; accountability.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F22

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Medical Information

Information or records obtained, with the consent of the individual to whom it relates, from licensed physicians or medical practitioners, hospitals, clinics or other medical or medically related facilities.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F67-68, US45-47, 63; G90

Associated term(s): HIPAA

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Multi-Factor Authentication

The authentication of a user by multiple means. This is typically accomplished by a requirement for both a password and at least one other form of authentication such as a pass card, biometric scan or an "out of band" means such as a phone call.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F94-95

Associated term(s): Two-Factor Authentication; Two-Step Authentication

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National Security Letter

A category of subpoena. The USA PATRIOT Act expanded the use of NSLs. Separate and sometimes differing statutory provisions now govern access, without a court order, to communication providers, financial institutions, consumer credit agencies and travel agencies.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US148

Acronym(s): NSL

Associated law(s): USA-PATRIOT Act

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Negligence

An organization will be liable for damages if it breaches a legal duty to protect personal information and an individual is harmed by that breach.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F25; US5

Associated term(s): Private Right of Action

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Network-Layer Attacks

Attacks that exploit the basic network protocol in order to gain any available advantage. These attacks generally involve “spoofing” a network address so that a computer sends data to an intruder rather than their proper recipient or destination. Other attacks can involve service disruptions through a denial of service (DOS) attack—a brute force method that overloads the capacity of a website’s domain to respond to incoming requests such that it renders the server inoperable.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F102

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Non-Public Personal Information

Is defined by GLBA as personally identifiable financial information (i) provided by a consumer to a financial institution, (ii) resulting from a transaction or service performed for the consumer, or (iii) otherwise obtained by the financial institution. Excluded from the definition are (i) publicly available information and (ii) any consumer list that is derived without using personally identifiable financial information.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F43; US67-68; G99; M36

Acronym(s): NPI

Associated law(s): GLBA

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Non-Repudiation

The ability to ensure that neither the originator nor the receiver in a transaction can dispute the validity of the transaction or access request. An independent verification takes place which allows the sender’s identity to be verified, typically by a third party, and also allows the sender to know that the intended recipient of the message actually received it. Non-repudiation of origin proves that data has been sent and non-repudiation of delivery proves that the data has been received.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F94

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OECD Guidelines

(1)The Collection Limitation Principle. There should be limits to the collection of personal data and any such data should be obtained by lawful and fair means and, where appropriate, with the knowledge or consent of the data subject. (2)The Data Quality Principle. Personal data should be relevant to the purposes for which they are to be used, and, to the extent necessary for those purposes, should be accurate, complete and kept up-to-date. (3)The Purpose Specification Principle. The purposes for which personal data are collected should be specified not later than at the time of data collection and the subsequent use limited to the fulfillment of those purposes or such others as are not incompatible with those purposes and as are specified on each occasion of change of purpose. (4)The Use Limitation Principle. Personal data should not be disclosed, made available or otherwise used for purposes other than those specified in accordance with Paragraph 8 (below) except a) with the consent of the data subject; or b) by the authority of law. (5)The Security Safeguards Principle. Personal data should be protected by reasonable security safeguards against such risks as loss or unauthorized access, destruction, use, modification or disclosure of data. (6)The Openness Principle. There should be a general policy of openness about developments, practices and policies with respect to personal data. Means should be readily available of establishing the existence and nature of personal data, and the main purposes of their use, as well as the identity and usual residence of the data controller. (7)The Individual Participation Principle. An individual should have the right: a) to obtain from a data controller, or otherwise, confirmation of whether or not the data controller has data relating to him; b) to have data relating to him communicated to him, within a reasonable time, at a charge, if any, that is not excessive; in a reasonable manner; and in a form that is readily intelligible to him; c) to be given reasons if a request made under subparagraphs (a) and (b) is denied, and to be able to challenge such denial, and d) to challenge data relating to him and, if the challenge is successful to have the data erased, rectified, completed or amended.(8) The Accountability Principle. A data controller should be accountable for complying with measures which give effect to the principles stated above.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F17-18; US13; E7-9; G10-11

Associated term(s): OECD Guidelines Governing the Protection of Privacy and Transborder Data Flows of Personal Data (1980)

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Omnibus Laws

Laws in which the government has defined requirements throughout the economy including public-sector, private-sector and health-sector.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US16

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Online Behavioral Advertising

Websites or online advertising services that engage in the tracking or analysis of search terms, browser or user profiles, preferences, demographics, online activity, offline activity, location data, etc., and offer advertising based on that tracking.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F134; US22, 24; C45-47; E261-264

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Openness

A fair information practices principle, it is the principle that there should be a general policy of openness about developments, practices and policies with respect to personal data. Means should be readily available to establish the existence and nature of personal data, and the main purposes of their use, as well as the identity and usual residence of the data controller.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F18, 22; C42-43; E8; M35

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Opt-In

One of two central concepts of choice. It means an individual makes an active affirmative indication of choice; i.e., checking a box signaling a desire to share his or her information with third parties.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F16; US38-40; C116-117; E136; G171

Associated term(s): Choice; Consent; Opt-Out

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Opt-Out

One of two central concepts of choice. It means that an individual’s lack of action implies that a choice has been made; i.e., unless an individual checks or unchecks a box, his or her information will be shared with third parties.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F16; US38-40; C116-117; E136

Associated term(s): Choice; Consent; Opt-In

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Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

An international organization that promotes policies designed to achieve the highest sustainable economic growth, employment and a rising standard of living in both member and non-member countries, while contributing to the world economy.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F17-18; US13, 24; C18; E7; G10-11; M27, 50

Acronym(s): OECD

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Outsourcing

Contracting business processes, such as the processing of personal information, to a third party.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: C88-89; E287-292

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Passive Data Collection

Data collection in which information is gathered automatically—often without the end user’s knowledge—as the user navigates from page to page on a website. This is typically accomplished through the use of cookies, web beacons or other types of identification mechanisms.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F128

Associated term(s): Observational Study; Cookie; Web Beacons; Active Data Collection

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PCI Data Security Standard

A self-regulatory system that provides an enforceable security standard for payment card data. The rules were drafted by the Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council, which built on previous rules written by the various credit card companies. Except for small companies, compliance with the standard requires hiring a third party to conduct security assessments and detect violations. Failure to comply can lead to exclusion from Visa, MasterCard or other major payment card systems, as well as penalties.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F33; US23, 117; M9, 46

Acronym(s): PCI-DSS

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Perimeter Controls

Technologies and processes that are designed to secure an entire network environment by preventing penetration from the outside.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F100

Associated term(s): Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS), Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS), Internet Protocol Security (IPSEC), Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

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Personal Data

Any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person; an identifiable person is one who can be identified, directly or indirectly—in particular by reference to an identification number or to one or more factors specific to his physical, physiological, mental, economic, cultural or social identity.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F4-7, 39

Associated term(s): Personal Information; Personally Identifying Information; Personally Identifiable Information

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Personal Information

May refer to either a generic term for information, or an EU term for such information. In the U.S., such information may be referred to as Personally Identifiable Information

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F4-7, 39; G4-5; M36

Acronym(s): PI

Associated term(s): Personal Data; Personally Identifying Information; Personally Identifiable Information

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Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act

A Canadian act with two goals: (1) to instill trust in electronic commerce and private sector transactions for citizens, and (2) to establish a level playing field where the same marketplace rules apply to all businesses.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F48-49; C23-31; M27

Acronym(s): PIPEDA

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Phishing

E-mails or other communications that are designed to trick a user into believing that he or she should provide a password, account number or other information. The user then typically provides that information to a website controlled by the attacker. “Spear phishing” is a phishing attack that is tailored to the individual user, such as when an e-mail appears to be from the user’s boss, instructing the user to provide information.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F119, 132

Associated term(s): Spear Phishing; Social Engineering

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POST Method

The GET and POST HTML method attributes specify how form data is sent to a web page. The POST method is more secure than GET as the GET method appends the form data to the URL allowing passwords and other sensitive information collected in a form to be visible in the browser’s address bar.

Associated term(s): GET Method

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Privacy Assessment

An assessment of an organization’s compliance with its privacy policies and procedures, applicable laws, regulations, service-level agreements, standards adopted by the entity and other contracts. The assessment or audit measures how closely the organization’s practices align with its legal obligations and stated practices and may rely on subjective information such as employee interviews/questionnaires and complaints received, or objective standards, such as information system logs or training and awareness attendance and test scores. Audits and assessments may be conducted internally by an audit function or by external third parties. It is also common in some jurisdictions for the privacy/data protection officer to conduct assessments. The results of the assessment or audit are documented for management sign-off, and analyzed to develop recommendations for improvement and a remediation plan. Resolution of the issues and vulnerabilities noted are then monitored to ensure appropriate corrective action is taken on a timely basis. While assessments and audits may be conducted on a regular or scheduled basis, they may also arise ad hoc as the result of a privacy or security event or due to a request from an enforcement authority.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F14

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Privacy by Design

The concept that organizations need to build privacy directly into technology, systems and practices at the design phase, thereby ensuring the existence of privacy from the outset. Originating in the mid-1990s by the Information and Privacy Commissioner of Ontario, the principle has gained recognition around the globe, including from the U.S. Federal Trade Commission and the European Commission. Privacy by Design consists of seven foundational principles: (1) Proactive not Reactive; Preventative not Remedial. Privacy by Design anticipates and prevents privacy invasive events before they happen, rather than waiting for privacy risks to materialize; (2) Privacy as the Default Setting. No action is required by individuals to maintain their privacy; it is built into the system by default. This concept has been introduced in the European Commission’s draft regulation to reform data protection. (3) Privacy Embedded into Design. Privacy is an essential component of the core functionality being designed and delivered. The FTC has adopted this principle in its proposed consumer privacy framework, calling for companies to promote consumer privacy throughout the organization and at every stage of product development. (4) Full Functionality—Positive-Sum, not Zero-Sum: Privacy by Design seeks to accommodate all legitimate interests and objectives, rather than making unnecessary trade-offs. (5) End-to-End Security—Full Lifecycle Protection. Strong security measures are essential to privacy, from start to finish of the lifecycle of data. This is another principle the FTC has adopted in its proposed consumer privacy framework.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F14-15, 128; US21; M88-90, 121-122

Acronym(s): PbD

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Privacy Impact Assessment

“An analysis of how information is handled: (i) to ensure handling conforms to applicable legal, regulatory and policy requirements regarding privacy; (ii) to determine the risks and effects of collecting, maintaining and disseminating information in identifiable form in an electronic information system, and (iii) to examine and evaluate protections and alternative processes for handling information to mitigate potential privacy risks.” PIAs should disclose what PII is being collected, why it is being collected, what the intended uses of the PII are, whom the PII will be shared with, what opportunities individuals will have to opt-out of PII collection or use, how the PII will be secured, whether a system of records is being created under the Privacy Act and an analysis of the information life cycle. Checklists or tools used to ensure that the system used to collect personal information is evaluated for privacy risks, designed with lifecycle principles in mind and made to ensure that effective and required privacy protection measures are used. A PIA should be completed pre-implementation of the privacy project, product, or service and should be ongoing through its deployment. The PIA should identify these attributes of the data collected: what information is collected; why it is collected; the intended use of the information; with whom the information is shared, and the consent and choice rights of the data subjects. The PIA should be used to assess new systems, significant changes to existing systems, operational policies and procedures and intended use of the information. PIAs should also be used before, during, and after mergers and acquisitions. An effective PIA evaluates the sufficiency of privacy practices and policies with respect to existing legal, regulatory and industry standards, and maintains consistency between policy and operational practices.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F14; G31; M123-125

Acronym(s): PIAs

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Privacy Notice

A statement made to a data subject that describes how the organization collects, uses, retains and discloses personal information. A privacy notice is sometimes referred to as a privacy statement, a fair processing statement or sometimes a privacy policy. Special privacy notices are also mandated by specific laws such a GLBA and COPPA in the united states.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F16; US16-18, 37; G95-97, 100

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Privacy Officer

An official responsible for the coordination and implementation of all privacy and confidentiality efforts within a government department or component. This official may be statutorily mandated, as in the Department of Homeland Security, or appointed by a department or component to handle privacy and other related matters.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: G3-4, 40

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Privacy Policy

An internal statement that governs an organization or entity’s handling practices of personal information. It is directed at the users of the personal information. A privacy policy instructs employees on the collection and the use of the data, as well as any specific rights the data subjects may have.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F11; US16-18; G134-136

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Private Right of Action

Unless otherwise restricted by law, any individual that is harmed by a violation of the law can file a lawsuit against the violator.

Associated term(s): Negligence

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US6

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Public Key Infrastructure

A system of digital certificates, authorities and other registration entities that verifies the authenticity of each party involved in an electronic transaction through the use of cryptography.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F96-97

Acronym(s): PKI

Associated term(s): Cryptography

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Public Records

Information collected and maintained by a government entity and available to the general public.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F7, 71

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Publicly Available Information

Information that is generally available to a wide range of persons. Some traditional examples include names and addresses in telephone books and information published in newspapers or other public media. Today, search engines are a major source of publicly available information.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F7

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Purpose Limitation

This principle imposes limits on the processing of data for purposes other than those for which it was obtained.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: E81

Associated term(s): Principle of Finality

Associated law(s): Data Protection Directive

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Purpose Specification

A fair information practices principle, it is the principle stating that the purposes for which personal data are collected should be specified no later than at the time of data collection and the subsequent use limited to the fulfillment of those purposes or such others as are not incompatible with those purposes and as are specified on each occasion of change of purpose.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F18, 22; E20, 253; M35

Associated term(s): FIPs

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Radio-Frequency Identification

Technologies that use radio waves to identify people or objects carrying encoded microchips.

Acronym(s): RFID

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Rectification

Closely intertwined with access, rectification is the right or ability of a data subject to correct erroneous information that is stored about them. The right is provided by the EU Data Protection Directive and the American Fair Credit Reporting Act, among other laws.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: E90, 132-133

Associated term(s): Access

Associated law(s): Data Protection Directive; FCRA

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Reidentification

The process of using publicly available information to re-associate personally identifying information with data that has been anonymized.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: G71-72, 91, 165-166

Associated term(s): Deidentification; anonymization

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Retention

Within the information lifecycle the concept that organizations should retain personal information only as long as necessary to fulfill the stated purpose.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F16; G22

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Right of Access

Generally, the right of individuals to obtain data about themselves from data controllers upon request. The right is accorded under Article 12 of the Data Protection Directive, although member states are afforded some latitude to implement the rule. In Canada, the right is provided by PIPEDA. In the U.S., The Privacy Act provides only U.S. Citizens and lawful permanent residents right of access to their own records, whereas FOIA provides a general right of access to agency records for any requester seeking access to such records.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: C76-77; E126; G28

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Right to Object

A data subject’s ability to object to processing activities. The right to object is specifically defined in the EU Data Protection Directive, Article 14 and refers to two separate rights: A general right to object and a right to object to direct marketing.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: E133-136

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Right to Privacy, The

An 1890 law review article by Louis Brandeis and Samuel Warren arguing that privacy is the right to be left alone, and that the violation of this right should give rise to a tort.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F1

Associated term(s): Right to be left alone

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Risk Assessment Factors

The following constitute risk assessment factors: Number of breaches; number of outages; unauthorized access; lost assets; software viruses; investigations.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F80-81

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Role-Based Access Controls

Access policies that espouse the view that no employee should have greater information access than is necessary to capably perform his or her job function.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F94

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Safe Harbor

The European Commission’s (EC) Directive on Data Protection (EC/46/95) prohibits the transfer of personal data to non-European Union nations that do not meet the European “adequacy” standard for privacy protection. While the U.S. and the European Union (EU) share the goal of privacy protection, the U.S. uses a sectoral approach that relies on a mix of legislation, regulation and self-regulation, while the EU relies on comprehensive legislation that requires creation of government data protection agencies, registration of databases with those agencies and, in some instances, approval before personal data processing may begin. As a result of these different privacy approaches, the directive could have significantly hampered the ability of U.S. companies to engage in many trans-Atlantic transactions. In order to bridge these different privacy approaches and provide a streamlined means for U.S. organizations to comply with the directive, the U.S. Department of Commerce and the EC developed a “Safe Harbor” framework. The Safe Harbor—approved by the EU in 2001—is an important way for U.S. companies to avoid interruptions in business dealings with the EU or prosecution by European authorities under European privacy laws. Certifying to the Safe Harbor assures that EU organizations know a non-EU-based company provides adequate privacy protection, as defined by the directive. From a U.S. perspective, Safe Harbor is a self-regulatory regime that is only available to companies subject to the enforcement authority of the U.S. Federal Trade Commission or the U.S. Department of Transportation. Companies that are outside the jurisdiction of these two agencies are not eligible to join Safe Harbor.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: E178-180

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Seal Programs

Programs that require participants to abide by codes of information practices and submit to monitoring to ensure compliance. In return, companies that abide by the terms of the seal program are allowed to display the programs seal on their website.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F33-34; US24; C5

Associated term(s): Self-regulatory Model, WebTrust

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Secret Key

“A cryptographic key used with a secret key cryptographic algorithm, uniquely associated with one or more entities and which shall not be made public. The use of the term ’secret’ in this context does not imply a classification level, rather the term implies the need to protect the key from disclosure or substitution.” (Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 140-1, Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules)

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Sectoral Laws/Model

Laws that exist only in areas where the legislative body has found a particular need.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F32, 41-44; C5

Related term(s) Comprehensive Laws, Co-regulatory Model, Self-regulatory Model, Technology Based Model

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Secure Sockets Layer

A protocol for establishing a secure connection for transmission that facilitates much of the online commerce that occurs on the Internet today. For example, HTTPS, a secure form of HTTP, is an SSL application used in password exchanges or e-commerce. “The primary goal of the SSL protocol is to provide privacy and reliability between two communicating applications.” The protocol has three main properties: (1) The connection is private; (2) the peer’s identity can be authenticated using asymmetric, or public key, cryptography, and (3) the connection is reliable.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F118, 124-125

Acronym(s): SSL

Related term(s): HTTP, HTTPS, TLS

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Security Safeguards

A fair information practices principle, it is the principle that personal data should be protected by reasonable security safeguards against such risks as loss or unauthorized access, destruction, use, modification or disclosure of data.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F18, 21; G10; M35

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Sedona Conference

An important source of standards and best practices for managing electronic discovery compliance through data retention policies. Regarding e-mail retention, the Sedona Conference offers four key guidelines: (1) E-mail retention policies should be administered by interdisciplinary teams composed of participants across a diverse array of business units; (2) such teams should continually develop their understanding of the policies and practices in place and identify the gaps between policy and practice; (3) interdisciplinary teams should reach consensus as to policies while looking to industry standards; (4) technical solutions should meet and parallel the functional requirements of the organization.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US135

Associated term(s): Data retention, e-Discovery

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Self-Regulation Model, The

Self-regulation refers to stakeholder-based models for ensuring privacy. The term “self-regulation” can refer to any or all of three pieces: legislation, enforcement and adjudication. Legislation refers to question of who defines privacy rules. For self-regulation, this typically occurs through the privacy policy of a company or other entity, or by an industry association. Enforcement refers to the question of who should initiate enforcement action. Actions may be brought by data protection authorities, other government agencies, industry code enforcement or, in some cases, the affected individuals. Finally, adjudication refers to the question of who should decide whether an organization has violated a privacy rule. The decision maker can be an industry association, a government agency or a judicial officer. These examples illustrate that the term “self-regulation” covers a broad range of institutional arrangements. For a clear understanding of data privacy responsibilities, privacy professionals should consider who defines the requirements, which organization brings enforcement action and who actually makes the judicial decisions.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F30, 33-34; US7; C5-6

Associated term(s): Comprehensive Laws, Co-regulatory Model, Online Privacy Alliance, Sectoral Laws, Seal Programs, Technology Based Model

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Semayne’s Case

A case recognized as establishing the "knock-and-announce rule," an important concept relating to privacy in one's home and Fourth Amendment search and seizure jurisprudence.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: C2

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Smart Grid

An energy system that manages electricity consumption through continuous monitoring, remote computerization and automation. The traditional electric transmission system required physically sending workers into the field to periodically read customer meters and find where problems existed in the grid. Smart grid operators; however, can remotely monitor and control the use of electricity to each home or business.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F73-74; US13

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Social Engineering

A general term for how attackers can try to persuade a user to provide information or create some other sort of security vulnerability.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F119-120; M170-171

Associated term(s): Phishing

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SPAM

Unsolicited commercial e-mail.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F131-132; C128; E42-43, 265

Associated law(s): CASL; CAN-SPAM Act

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Special Categories of Data

An EU term describing sensitive personal information, namely information pertaining to racial or ethnic origin, political opinions, religious or philosophical beliefs, trade-union membership and the processing of data concerning health or sex life.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F5; E100

Associated term(s): Sensitive Personal Data

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Standard Model Clauses

Contractual agreements defined by the EU and Article 29 Working Party for the purpose of meeting the adequacy standards defined under the EU Data Protection Directive. Standard model clauses contain extensive data protection commitments and company liability requirements.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F37; E293-294

Acronym(s): SMCs

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Substance Testing

A screening to identify drug use. Substance testing can be used in a variety of settings such as preemployment, reasonable suspicion, routine testing, post-accident testing or randomly.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US165-166

Associated terms(s): Americans with Disabilities Act, Random Testing, Reasonable Suspicion

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Syndicated Content

Content that is not actually created by the host site, but is developed, purchased or licensed from a third party. A concern associated with this content is that it can contain malicious code that is then unwittingly incorporated into the organization’s own website source code. For example, cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks attempt to take advantage of the trust that users have for a given site.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F129

Associated term(s): XSS

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Technology-Based Model

The technology-based model for data protection utilizes technological security measures to protect individuals’ personal data. While it is commonplace for companies to utilize technology to protect data, developments in commercially available hardware and software have enabled consumers to establish privacy protections for their own online activity.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F34; C6-7

Associated term(s): Comprehensive Laws, Co-regulatory Model, Sectoral Laws, Self-Regulatory Model

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Territorial Privacy

One of the four classes of privacy, along with information privacy, bodily privacy and communications privacy. It is concerned with placing limitations on the ability of one to intrude into another individual’s environment. Environment is not limited to the home; it may be defined as the workplace or public space and environmental considerations can be extended to an international level. Invasion into an individual’s territorial privacy typically comes in the form of video surveillance, ID checks and use of similar technology and procedures.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F2; C2

Associated term(s): Home Privacy

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Transfer

Sending personal data cross-border or from one company to another, which is necessary for operation of the company or for providing a service to a customer.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: E75, 174

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Transmission Control Protocol

A protocol which enables two devices to establish a connection and exchange data. A combination of TCP and IP is used to send data over the Internet. Data are sent in the form of a packet, which is a portion of a message sent over the TCP/IP network. It contains content and a heading that specifies the destination.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F118

Acronym(s): TCP; TCP/IP

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Transparency

The requirement to be open and honest about manner in, and purposes for, which personal data is used. It is a fundamental principle in privacy protections and a key concept of the European data protection framework.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: E107-111; G67-68, 70

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Transport Layer Security

A protocol that ensures privacy between client-server applications and Internet users of the applications. When a server and client communicate, TLS secures the connection to ensure that no third party can eavesdrop on or corrupt the message. TLS is a successor to SSL.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F118, 124-125

Acronym(s): TLS

Associated term(s): Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

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Trojan Horse

A form of malware in which bad software masquerades as beneficial software.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F99

Associated term(s): Malware

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U.S. Department of Labor

A U.S. federal agency that oversees “the welfare of the job seekers, wage earners and retirees of the United States by improving their working conditions, advancing their opportunities for profitable employment, protecting their retirement and healthcare benefits, helping employers find workers, strengthening free collective bargaining and tracking changes in employment, prices and other national economic measurements.” To achieve this mission, the department administers a variety of federal laws including, but not limited to, the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) and the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA).

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US157

Acronym(s): DOL

Associated law(s): FLSA; ERISA, OSHA

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Unfair Trade Practices

Commercial conduct that intentionally causes substantial injury, without offsetting benefits, and that consumers cannot reasonably avoid.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US18-20

Associated term(s): Deceptive Trade Practices

Associated law(s): U.S. Federal Trade Commission Act

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Uniform Resource Locator

The address of content located on a web server. Specifically, it is the letter and number coordinates that an end user submits to the web browser to instruct it to connect with the desired website. An example of a URL is “http://www.privacyassociation.org.”

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F131-132

Acronym(s): URL

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United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare Fair Information Practice Principles (1973), The

A code of fair information practices that contained five principles: (1) There must be no personal data record keeping systems whose very existence is secret. (2) There must be a way for an individual to find out what information about him (or her) is in a record and how it is used. (3) There must be a way for an individual to prevent information about him (or her) that was obtained for one purpose from being used or made available for other purposes without his (or her) consent. (4) There must be a way for an individual to correct or amend a record of identifiable information about him (or her). (5) Any organization creating, maintaining, using or disseminating records of identifiable personal data must assure the reliability of the data for their intended use and must take precautions to prevent misuse of the data.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: G9

Associated term(s): HEW Principles; HEW Report, The

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Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Also called the Human Rights Declaration, the declaration recognized the universal values and traditions of inherent dignity, freedom, justice and peace. It was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 10 December 1948. In December 1948, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This declaration formally announced that “[n]o one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence [.]” The statement was intended to encompass a wide range of conduct, as evidenced by Article 12 of the Declaration, which describes both the territorial and the communications notions of privacy.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F3; C2-3; E4, 15

Associated term(s): Declaration of Human Rights

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USA-PATRIOT Act

A broad-ranging act designed to counter terrorism that expanded law enforcement authority to surveillance and capturing communications and records.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US74, 132, 148; C88-90; G110-111

Acronym(s): USAPA

Associated term(s): Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001; Patriot Act

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Use Limitation

A fair information practices principle, it is the principle that personal data should not be disclosed, made available or otherwise used for purposes other than those specified in accordance with Paragraph 8 of the Fair Information Practice Principles except with the consent of the data subject or by the authority of law.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F18, 20; C19; E232-233, 260; G7

Associated term(s): Fair Information Practices

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Value-Added Services

A telecommunications industry term for non-core services; i.e., services beyond voice calls and fax transmissions. More broadly, the term is used in the service sector to refer to services, which are available at little or no cost, and promote their primary business. For mobile phones, while technologies like SMS, MMS and GPRS are usually considered value-added services, a distinction may also be made between standard (peer-to-peer) content and premium-charged content. These are called mobile value-added services (MVAS), which are often simply referred to as VAS. Value-added services are supplied either in-house by the mobile network operator themselves or by a third-party value-added service provider (VASP), also known as a content provider (CP) such as All Headline News or Reuters. VASPs typically connect to the operator using protocols like short message peer-to-peer protocol (SMPP), connecting either directly to the short message service centre (SMSC) or, increasingly, to a messaging gateway that gives the operator better control of the content.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: C117; E232-233, 260

Associated term(s): MVAS, VASP

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Video Surveillance

Recordings that do not have sound.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US168-169

Associated term(s): Video Surveillance Guidelines

Associated law(s): FISA

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Virtual Private Network

A network that uses primarily public telecommunication infrastructure, such as the Internet, to provide remote offices or traveling users an access to a central organizational network. VPNs typically require remote users of the network to be authenticated and often secure data with encryption technologies to prevent disclosure of private information to unauthorized parties.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F87

Acronym(s): VPN

Associated term(s): Remote Access Connectivity

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Voice Over Internet Protocol

A technology that allows telephone calls to be made over a LAN or the Internet itself. Skype is a well-known example. VoIP poses the same risk as network-connected PBX systems but also poses the additional risk of data interception when such data travel over an unsecured connection. VoIP functionality should be encrypted where possible and equipment monitored with intrusion-detection systems.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F88; US100

Acronym(s): VoIP

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Web Beacon

Also known as a web bug, pixel tag or clear GIF, a web beacon is a clear graphic image (typically one pixel in size) that is delivered through a web browser or HTML e-mail. The web beacon operates as a tag that records an end user’s visit to a particular web page or viewing of a particular e-mail. It is also often used in conjunction with a web cookie and provided as part of a third-party tracking service. Web beacons provide an ability to produce specific profiles of user behavior in combination with web server logs. Common usage scenarios for web beacons include online ad impression counting, file download monitoring, and ad campaign performance management. Web beacons also can report to the sender about which e-mails are read by recipients. Privacy considerations for web beacons are similar to those for cookies. Some sort of notice is important because the clear pixel of a web beacon is quite literally invisible to the end user.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F138; G66

Associated term(s): Web Bug, Pixel Tag, Tracking Bug, Clear GIF

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WebTrust

Created by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) and the Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants (CICA). It is a self-regulating seal program which licenses qualifying certified public accountants.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F34; M50

Associated term(s): Seal Programs

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Whistle-Blowing

The reporting of illegal or improper actions within a company by an employee of said company.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US156; E223-225

Associated term(s): Whistleblowing; Whistleblower

Associated law(s): SOX

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Wide Area Network

A non-localized telecommunications network that can be used to transmit data across large regions.

Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: F86

Acronym(s): WAN

Associated term(s): LAN; Local Area Network

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